Pipe belt conveyors, also called tube conveyors are getting prominence for transportation of bulk material for certain advantages. Over a conventional open belt conveyor, the basic advantage is the pipe shape, that prevents leakages, reduces pilferage and also importantly, and produces little dust along its path of travel. As a result, it is being touted to be environmentally clean option. In the recent years, all over the world pipe belt conveyors of long distance are becoming increasingly common. As of today, the world’s longest pipe conveyor, which is 8.2 km long and is operating in Peru, as well as the highest capacity coal pipe conveyor with a capacity of 2,000 tonnes per hour, operating in Colombia. India’s longest (2.4 km) pipe conveyor, today carries 1000 tonnes of limestone per hour. In this paper while we discuss the technicalities of pipe belt conveyor in general, we provide a case where the technical solution is derived. The team was asked make a techno-social- commercial decision to lay a pipe belt conveyor from the boundaries of a mine to a railway siding.Read more
Continuous miner technology is one of the mass mining technologies suited for exploitation of deep coal deposits. This method requires less investment and ensures more productivity. This method provides more roof exposure in the form of slices and leaves the small ribs between slices during depillaring operation which may lead to roof fall, side fall and ribs failure. In order to avoid the accidents due to roof, side falls and failure of ribs, the stability analysis of continuous workings is to be performed. In this study, a three dimensional finite analysis is performed for the continuous miner panel. In the continuous miner panel, dip most pillar is depillared and nearby pillar is under splitting condition. The vertical displacements due to this operation are estimated in the working as well as on the surface. The safety factors of ribs are also estimated using HoekBrown rock mass failure envelope.
Keywords: Pillar, roadway, ribs, fender, displacement, principal stress, safety factor
Blockchain technology is basically a digital ledger in the cloud which is distributed and decentralised. Blockchain is getting popularity in different industries these days because of its specific applicability features like data integrity, security, fast, transparency etc. There will not be any third party organisation intervention for control of the transactions within it. Therefore it creates interesting and vast research areas, especially from the perspective of technical challenges, expectations and limitations. These days blockchain is having wide range of applications in various industries and mining industry is no where exception to that. Many leading mining companies started implementing this technology into their operations and major application areas are fixing up smart contracts, compliance issues, addressing sustainability etc. It has got tremendous potential to fundamentally change the way the mining industry and connected supply chains operate.
Keywords: Blockchain, smart contracts, sustainability
Oxidation roasting is the most effective method for treating sulfur in pyrite, Study the calcination temperature and time on cobalt and sulfur during oxidative roasting. After oxidizing roasting of a cobalt ore concentrate in a concentrator in Sichuan, the sulfur in the sample was basically removed, so that the cobalt grade increased from about 6% to about 9%. The results show that the desulfurization effect is best at 900°C and calcination for 2.5 hours. The grade of cobalt is also increased by about 50% compared to that before roasting. In the phase transformation analysis of the specific calcination process, it is concluded that from the beginning of 500°C, pyrrhotite, magnetite and hematite are formed in sequence, and the talc gradually disappears during the temperature increase, and the magnesium iron tip is formed in parallel. The spar, a small amount of chromium forms a zinc spinel in the form of a lattice substitution, and a part of the cobaltmagnesium element is latticesubstituted into the chromite to form cobalt magnesium chromite ore and cobalt chromite. After 600°C, there is a significant change in the spectrum. At this time, some hematite, maghemite and magnetite are formed. Until the 900°C map tends to be stable, pyrite and pyrite (FeS2) are largely converted into hematite and maghemite (Fe2O3), but some magnetite (Fe3O4) still exists.
Keywords: Cobaltsulfur concentrate; oxidative roasting; desulfurization
Gorbi mine belonging to Northern Coalfields Limited (A subsidiary of Coal India Limited) has been abandoned and mine void is filled with water acidic, which is due to presence of pyrite in the coal measure, strata containing sulphur varying from 0.5 to 1.0 per cent. Pyrite (FeS2) is oxidized when exposed to oxygen and water, resulting in hydrogen ions, sulfate ions and metal cations. This problem also persists in coalfields of North East India. The problem of acid mine drainage pollutes the surface and ground water making it unsuitable for plants and animals and need to be neutralize with the removal of trace and major metal before its supply. Acid mine drainage (AMD) is characterized by low pH value 24 and often contains high concentrations of chemical species such as Fe, Mn and anionic species such as SO4, apart from heavy metals such as Zn, Co, Pb, Cr, and Cu in trace concentrations. This paper describes the results of a study conducted to determine the ability of coal fly ash (CFA) and rice husk biochar (RHB), which are available locally and do not cost much to neutralize inorganic trace and major elements from acid mine drainage in different conditions. In this study optimum doses of CFA and RHB have been determined for the neutralization.
Keywords: AMD, CFA, RHB
The image segmentation is a classification issue where every pixel is classified into different groups. A variety of image segmentation methods have been developed for image processing and computer applications of pixels of satellite data. The data mining of data of remote sensing data in which it assumed that optimization of pixels is typically labelled as single land cover and land use class. The pixel level and texture features are selected from the transformed colour image. The pixels are classified the spectral variables and informations. These pixels are classified by two methods of unsupervised and supervised classifiers algorithms. Pixels satellite images are natural grouping of digital value using maximum likelihood and selforganizing data analysis (ISODATA) algorithms. An analyst selects training sample sites with known class types and representative samples. The pixels are labelled by decision rules by their spectral properties with maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) algorithms.Read more