For heavy reservoirs with different rheological fluid, the diverse phenomena may appear in the fluid flow. Based on the rheology experiment, the actual rheological equations are figured out in district A. With the detailed type of fluid, the fundamental formulas about pressure loss and temperature are reasonably selected, by which, the model for production prediction are defined as the basis for the calculation of pressure distribution along the pipe. As Beggs-Brill method has just made a prominent contribution to the slippage area, the wellbore pressure distribution is obtained through basic momentum equations, in which the pressure drop is calculated only based on the average parameters, such as density, viscosity. The impact caused by slippage between steam-liquid phases has yet been neglected. Particularly, when the steam dryness is relatively low, and the slippage does exist, the result is obviously not scientific. Therefore, with some modified parameters, this paper proposes a new process by the involvement of Beggs- Brill method, and describes the process in detail with onsite data to test and verify the feasibility. It turns out that BeggsBrill method is suitable to calculate pressure distribution, where the process and the model for production prediction are also applicable in this district.
Keywords: Beggs-Brill, downhill, steam flooding, slippage
The flow pattern is mainly composed of stratified flow in horizontal well multiphase flow, so the conventional single probe logging instrument cannot truly and completely reflect the flow state, and hold up of each phase fluid. Therefore, it is necessary to use the array probe measuring tool in horizontal well. In this paper, firstly, the characteristics of the existing foreign array probe measurement technology are compared. secondly, the wellbore and cross section are shaded using the grid and the simple inverse-distance interpolation algorithm. Thirdly, based on the data measured by SONDEX capacitance array tool and resistance array tool, a threedimensional horizontal wellbore is drawn using VC++ 6.0 and Open GL language. Fourth, the three-dimensional fluid flow imaging module QRZ view is compiled for multiphase flow in horizontal wells. Finally, the test with the data of three simulation wells shows that QRZ view has good 3D flow imaging effect and is suitable for stratified flow in horizontal well.
Keywords: Horizontal well, multiphase flow, flow imaging, array probe, stratified flow, holdup
In order to improve the lower performance of mine fans in China’s Tibetan plateau, this article mainly studies the effects of plateau environment on the fans’ parameters. The results show that (1) the main contributory factor of the variation of the air pressure and power is the air density, while the air flow and efficiency cannot be influenced by the air density; (2) through the tests of fan performance at different altitudes, it can be found that the characteristic curve of air pressure declines by about 1/2 at an altitude of 4000 m or more and by about 1/4 at an altitude of about 2000 m, compared to it in the standard state. It indicates that the higher the altitude is, the poorer the working condition of fan performance is. Based on the above results and the analysis of the influence of an altitude on miners’ physiological conditions, this article has established a mathematical model of modified performance parameters of mine fans referring the atmospheric pressure at an altitude of 3000 m.
Keywords: Characteristic curve of air pressure, characteristic curve of fan power, air flow of fans, the test of fans, similarity law of fans
Cadmium and lead contained in atmospheric dustfall are detrimental to the environment and human health. The research on the environmental chemical behaviour of cadmium and lead in atmospheric dustfall can contribute to the prevention or reduction of the occurrence of such environmental chemical hazards. Taking an economic zone in China as the research object, this paper analyzes the pollution situation and the chemical form of cadmium and lead in atmospheric dustfall and studies the relationship between the characters of dustfall and the specification of lead and cadmium by conducting the leaching experiment of dustfall. The results show that the contents of cadmium and lead in the economic zone are 1.64~7.8μg•g–1 and 1.67~777μg•g–1, respectively. The comprehensive pollution levels of cadmium and lead are mild contamination with the comprehensive pollution index being 1.72 and 1.84, respectively.
Keywords: Atmospheric dustfall, heavy metal, environmental chemical behaviour
This paper attempts to make effective use of gold mineral resources based on 3D visualization. To this end, the authors developed a techno-economic evaluation system for gold resource exploitation on 3D visualization platform. Based on the technical indices and production costs, a technoeconomic model was created by data mining and geological statistics methods like regression analysis and time series analysis. Then, the mineral resources were evaluated economically to timely adjust the cutoff and economic grades. The proposed system and models offered valuable guidance on the mining design, resource utilization, and reserve management. This study supports the the scientific decision-making for mining investment and operation, and maximizes the economic profits of mineral resources.
Keywords: 3D visualization, economic evaluation, block model, dynamic reserve management
This paper researches specialized reverse-circulation drilling bit for multi-layer goaf detection based on the multilayer goaf detection project of iron ore mine in Yuan Village and designs a sliding-block reverse-circulation drilling bit with innovation, which is designed with large-through hole central channel, double-row inner orifice and sliding block. The structure of sliding block is used on reverse-circulation drilling bit for the first time. The performance of slidingblock reverse-circulation drilling bit is observed in practical drilling test, indicating good effect of reverse circulation, and high drilling efficiency, with the average drilling efficiency of 33.75m/h on extremely cracked land and 10.17m/h on hard land. The sliding-block reversecirculation drilling bit can effectively solve the problem of blocking central channel since the structure of sliding block can meet the requirement on drilling. The top plate of multilayer goaf can be drilled through successfully. C-ALS threedimensional laser scanner can be put down through the central channel to solve the difficulty of simultaneous scan and detection on multi-layer goaf.
Keywords: Goaf; pass-through down-hole hammer reverse-circulation drilling technology; C-ALS threedimensional laser scanner; sliding-block reverse-circulation drilling bit
This paper takes the characteristics of timing data from Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Tomography monitor as basis, introduces the Kalman filter technique for a recursive process on the natural electric field data of monitor samples to achieve the timing inversion on monitor data. The dynamic surveillance can be carried out on how the spatial and temporal changes, such as groundwater movement law, water inrush prediction, quarry and mining surveillance. Time-lapse surveillance in a small area of the seam roadway on a short time scale has further proved that the Kalman algorithm has good effect on the inversion process of monitor data. The monitor data inversion interpretation in the natural electric field characterizes the variation of the electrical properties of the floor before and after grouting. The internal correlation between water movement and grouting change is thereby built up. These features attributes TL- Early to playing a good effect in the earlywarning of floor water inrush.
Keywords: Time-shift resistivity tomography, Kalman filter technique, dynamic monitor
Based on the dense well pattern data of PI2a unit of Putaohua oil layer in Sazhong development area of Daqing oilfield as well as modern sediment and outcrop, the paper attempts to determine point bar configuration parameters through a combination of quantitative methods to establish a three-dimensional point bar configuration model. On the basis of this model, the paper proposed a parameterconstrained three-dimensional configuration model of lateral accretion interbeds via spatial translation according to the planar trajectory of interbeds, so as to maximally restore the geological structure and ascertain the anisotropism and residual oil inside point bars. The results show that there are 15 interbeds in the study area with an azimuth of 320° and an obliquity range of 3.5°-13.1°. The interbeds average an interval of 9.5m, and each of them stretches 25m on average. The profile of interbeds is concave, which is slow, steep, slow from the bottom to the top, and the surface takes the shape of crescent. The profile of lateral accretion bodies is characterized by a echelonlike superimposed structure. The interior of point bars shows strong anisotropism due to interbeds, with residual oil being scarce at the bottom, abundant in the middle and extremely abundant at the top. Given the distribution pattern, the paper put forward suggestions for future residual oil potential tapping.
Keywords: Configuration modelling, anisotropism, configuration model, configuration parameter, point bar
This paper studies the situation of the ecological environmental governance in mining areas. By selecting indices from the perspectives of economic, ecological and social efficiencies, this paper establishes a comprehensive efficiency evaluation index system for the ecological environment governance in mining areas in the process of urbanization. Based on the index weights determined, this paper applies the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model to perform empirical analysis on Xuzhou mining area as a whole. According to the analysis results, the comprehensive efficiency of ecological environment governance in the mining area has a total score of 77.8545, which is rated as “medium” and is developing towards “good”, indicating that the environmental governance has gained some comprehensive efficiencies but still needs to be improved.
Keywords: Ecological environment of mining areas, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, governance efficiencies, urbanization
Aiming at the problem of heavy metal pollution in soil surrounding the metal mining area, the heavy metal pollution is evaluated and studied from 4 aspects, including the surface soil around the metal mining area, the soil profile, the different directions of the mining area and the morphological characteristics of heavy metals in the surface soil. The results show that the pollution level of Cd and Pb elements is the highest in the soil, which are classified as severe pollution and moderate pollution respectively. The pollution level of Cu, Zn, As and Ni belongs to light pollution, and the pollution level of Cr and Hg is the lowest. The calculation results of the cumulative index weighted values in the soil shows that the soil pollution around the metal mining area is more serious, with the pollution in most areas seriously exceeding the standard. Heavy metals are mostly concentrated within a range of 10cm of surface soil. With the increase of depth, the content of heavy metals decreases rapidly. When the depth exceeds 1m, the soil is basically clear of heavy metal pollution. The content of heavy metals in the west and south of the metal mines is higher than that in the east and the north. Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cr are mainly in the residual form, accounting for 65.4% of the overall form, followed by the oxidation form with an average value of 19.6%, then followed by reducible form, with an average value of 9.2%, and the proportion of exchangeable form is the lowest, accounting for 6.4%. The average sum values of the residual and exchangeable forms of these 5 elements can reach to more than 70%, thus they are easy to adsorb onto plants or humus and other objects on the surface soil, causing serious damage to the surrounding environment.
Keywords: Soil, heavy metal pollution, profile, morphological mnalysis, metal mining area