The generation of huge quantity of fly ash and its utilization or safe disposal is the main concern affecting the efficient and economical working of thermal power plants (TPP) in India. Government of India is making continuous efforts and making stringent regulations to promote fly ash utilization and has given targets to all TPPs to achieve 100% utilization level. Despite various initiatives by Govt., the utilization of fly ash is still around 63% and remaining 37% fly ash is poorly disposed off into ash ponds. Presently, major consumers of fly ash are for making cement, bricks, concrete and roads. The utilization of fly ash in all these activities has reached to almost saturation level. A very limited quantity of fly ash is being utilized by mines for backfilling of mine voids. One of the potential area for bulk disposal of fly ash is mine void filling which can help in achieving 100% utilization target. This paper discusses geotechnical, environmental and various operational and legal issues pertaining to fly ash disposal in open cast mine voids. Various methods of fly ash disposal in mine voids with successful implementation on a large scale in Indian open cast mines are discussed with a view to achieve 100% utilization target set by Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MOEFCC), Govt. of India.Read more
One of the principal costs in open cast mine is related to application of loading and haulage equipment. The real challenge of mine management of an open cast mines is to select the proper fleet size of dumpers and shovels and to utilize them effectively; it secures the production needs of a mine as well as minimizes costs of production. Overall Equipment Effectiveness can be used as a tool to measure the performance and utilization of shovel – dumper operation in open cast mines. Authors of the paper have discussed on the cycle time of shovel and dumper, their dispatching and allocation problem and proper combination in open cast mining operation to optimize the productivity and to reduce the operational cost after reviewing several research artcles.Read more
Continuous Miner (CM) is an underground coal mining machine, capable of producing coal from underground at a considerably higher rate. With incessant modernization, demand for power is increasing rapidly, which deserves a boost in coal production in India. Opencast mining in India contributes to maximum share of overall coal production as compared to underground coal mining. Opencast mining is feasible for the seams near the surface. However, with higher rate of extraction the near surface seams are getting quickly depleted, this necessitates the implementation of an effective cutting edge underground mining technology to sustain the level of coal production to support the indigenous demand of coal.
Government of India has recently taken the initiative to implement cutting edge underground mining technology; such as CM and other mass production technology to boost underground mine productivity. These machines are getting implemented recently, having a broad scope of research and development in Indian as well as global mining scenario.
This paper focuses on the mechanical factors contributing to equipment downtime along with statistical reliability analysis of two continuous miner machines working in two different panels of an underground mine in a leading coal producing company of the country. Reliability analysis includes statistical methods such as, trend test, serial correlation test including distribution fitting. Through trend test and serial correlation test, Time Between Failure (TBF) data is first checked whether it is free from any trend and serial correlation or not, data free from trend and serial correlation are suitable for distribution fitting. This TBF data is fed to proper probability distribution, from where the reliability curves are obtained.
In this machine mining based study, the overall CM package is divided into few subsystems such as; electrical, cutter and gathering arm, traction, hydraulic, chassis, feeder breaker, shuttle car, conveyor, CM conveyor etc. The availability and reliability of all these subsystems are calculated to identify the vulnerable subsystems contributing to maximum percentage of undesired equipment stoppage, hence lowering productivity. Some important mechanical factors are identified from physical verification in those two panels about the machines and systems of the mine. Out of which the potential factors are; conveyor breakdown, power cut and cable fault, traction chain wear out and pad change etc. The possible reasons of this lower reliability trend for that specific subsystem is discussed with experienced mining personnel working in the mine and based on that few recommendations as well as new maintenance strategy are suggested to avoid recurrence of these failures and to ensure better availability of the system.
Blasting is an operation which adopted mostly in opencast mining. Now a day’s India’s 80% of production comes from opencast projects only. To achieve the society demand parallel production is needed, for which Heavy Explosives & HEEM etc., are adopted. By adopting the above-discussed things can get quick output but the fragmentation of blast will is poor that results boulder. To calculate the fragmentation of patch at every time is difficult by manually and it makes that all other works on hold. By adopting Wip-Frag Software author analysis the fragmentation of patch that results seems 95% of accuracy. Finally, this paper concluded that analysis by this software gets accurate values and within less time. That helps to extend the focus on all other works.Read more
Iron is the fourth most common element and the second most abundant metallic elementin the earth’s crust. It is world’s one of the most commonly used metal and primary raw material used in the steel industry. The largest concentration of iron ore is found primarily in banded sedimentary formations of Precambrian age. Iron ores of India have enormous demand in the international market due to their rich iron content. The increasing demand for iron ore worldwide in the last few years due to rapid industrialization, urbanization, and technological developments, has increased the consumption of iron ore resources exponentially. Because of limited iron ore reserve with enormous global demand, it is high time to adopt advanced techniques to extract iron from both the low- and medium-grade ores. Also, more thrust should be given on scientific exploration, exploitation, advanced mine planning, and mineral beneficiation techniques. Efforts should also be made to develop new approaches and dynamic models to address the socio-economic, environmental, geological, technological, legal, and geopolitical issues for sustainable iron ore mining. This paper discusses the geological setting, global trends in reserves, production, and utilization of iron ore resources with special reference to India for its optimum utilization and conservation for the sustainability of the future generations.Read more