The autonomous and regional based system of Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS) is developed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) under the operation of Navigation with Indian Constellation (NAVIC) by placing 3 satellites in the geo-stationary orbit and 4 in the geo-synchronous orbit. This navigational system is developed to have guaranteed Global Navigation Satellite System(GNSS) access because GPS is not guaranteed in hostile situations. IRNSS provides real time positioning and timing over India and around 1500 kilo meters from India so the design of IRNSS antenna at user segment is mandatory. The proposed antenna is Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) which supports the IRNSS services of Standard Positioning Service (1.17 GHZ) and Precision Service (2.492 GHZ).The dimension of the proposed antenna is 40mm × 21mm × 6mm. The designed PIFA antenna has flat structure, Compact, light weight, reliable performance and good Signal Absorption Rate (SAR) properties. 3D Electro Magnetic Simulation tool is utilized to design the planar antenna. The parameters used to analyze the performance of the proposed PIFA antenna are return loss, VSWR, impedance, radiation pattern and directivity.
Keywords: PIFA, IRNSS, GNSS, SAR
To perform automated robot operations like ploughing, automatic seed dispensing, pesticide spraying and simultaneous seeding process using PIC. The main constituent here is the PIC microcontroller that supervises the entire process. It can also provide with the help of humidity sensors. On the field the robot operates on automated mode, but outside of the field the robot operated in manual mode. The manual operation is done by Zigbee pairing app. It is the control device and helps in the navigation of the robot outside of the field. Initially the robot tills the entire field and earnings to ploughing, concurrently dispensing seeds side by side. The device used for navigation is an ultrasonic sensor which constantly sends data to the microcontroller. The alerting device is GSM module that sends a text message to the farmer informing him about the breach in set position. The farmer then responds via SMS to either switch on the water sprinklers or ignore the alert.
Keywords: Pic microcontroller, robot, automated, field, manual
Mining is the extraction of minerals and metals from earth. Depending upon the location and nature of the resource mining can be divided into surface and subsurface (underground) mining. Quarrying plays an important role in infrastructure development and also the development of particular area. The mining activity has both positive as well as negative impacts.Improper process of mining done without proper preventive measures indirectly affects the air, water, noise and other resources of the particular localityleading to poor quality of the environment and long term impact on human health. It can be controlled by proper periodic monitoring and effective control of the pollution. This investigation aims to study the impact of the stone quarrying activity in and around Rathinamangalam area of Kancheepuram district of Tamilnadu, India. To assess the air quality, a sampling station which is located at the close vicinity of residential locality near the mining area was selected. The study was carried out during the pre-monsoon period and the post-monsoon period for a period of one year and the concentration levels of suspended particulate matter and other air quality parameters are determined using high volume sampler. Based on the study it was concluded that all parameters are within the limit except suspended particulate matter. It was observed that suspended particulate matter and respirable suspended particulate matter were found to be higher during the pre- monsoon period than the post-monsoon period. The observed concentration was compared to meteorological data such wind speed and wind direction to assess the influence of meteorological parameter on the air quality. According to the air quality levels mainly particulate matter, it was found that the SPM and RSPM were found around 10 to 20% higher during pre-monsoon when compared to National Ambient Air Quality standards (NAAQ). Increased SPM level was mainly attributed due to improper quarrying, crushing and blasting. Heavy vehicle movements around the site location also contribute to this phenomenon. This study highlights the urgent need of proper monitoring of mining industry, certain protective measures to be taken to protect the environment in and around the study area and to protect the people from severe health impacts.
Keywords: Air quality, suspended particulate matter (SPM), wind speed and wind direction, health risk assessment
Carotid artery ultrasound images identifies abnormalities like atherosclerosis, stroke etc. Classification as symptomatic or asymptomatic can be done using extreme learning machine (ELM) classifier, developed for unit hidden layer feed forward neural networks (SLFNs). Relations between the input layer and the hidden neurons are arbitrarily allotted and persist unchanged during the learning process. Even with more number of hidden neurons, learning of features with ELM has some weaknesses for natural signals like images or videos. An effective ELM based learning hierarchy architecture is proposed with multilayer perceptron for identifying carotid artery abnormalities. By ELM arbitrary feature charting, the resultant output is arbitrarily projected before the concluding remark is made, achieving a better overview with quicker rate of learning. It offers constant time learning and retrains neural network simpler once realized, applied in applications demanding on-chip training. It is a MATLAB-based application where we are going to use the procedures to reach functional parameters and set process related tasks using Xilinx ISE application set up to achieve statistics. This is conceivable because of an instinctive produce of parameter reliant programme and ideal hardware architecture strategy for the neural network and ELM training.
Keywords: Classification, enhancement, carotid artery, multi-layer perceptron (MLP)