The use of vesicles as a mode of drug delivery in the nano-size regime has gained more importance in the past two decades especially niosomes. Niosomes are vesicles which are formed by self assembly of non-ionic amphiphiles in aqueous media and has unilamellar or multilamellar structures. Glipizide is a second generation anti-diabetic drug from the sulfonylurea class also administered orally. This drug has established anti-diabetic action but it is rapid and short acting. In this study, encapsulation and sustained release of glipizide using niosomes was studied. The niosomes were prepared using Tween 80 and cholesterol by thin film hydration method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), drug encapsulation efficiency, and drug release studies were conducted. The entrapment efficiency was found to be around 53.97%. The drug release studies revealed a linear profile for the drug which lasted for 10-12 hours.
Keywords: Niosomes, Tween 80, cholesterol, glipizide
Increase in the construction practice has developed a stage of demand in river sand. Rockwool being a waste and a readily available material can be used as an alternative material. For fine aggregate, which is cost-effective and has a great effect on the strength properties of concrete. This replacements in concrete were done in order to save the environmental pollution. We, in this project, have used rockwool as a replacement material for fine aggregate. Based on the properties of rockwool, we have replaced fine aggregate partially in the concrete. The percentage of rockwool used in the concrete varies from 10% to 20%. We have also compared the nominal concrete with the concrete in which the replacement is carried out. We have obtained a good result at the replacement of sand by rockwool for 15%. As the topic of our project is not so familiar, we have no literature collection and we carried out this project in a trial and error basis.Read more
Environmental monitoring and biomedical diagnostics have attracted a lot of interest in the research community in recent years. Efforts are being made to develop technologies for sensors and diagnostic kits that provide a rapid and on-the-spot response. Microfluidics based lab-on-a-chip systems offer a promising solution in this direction. In the present study, we employ a simple method to fabricate labon- a-chip device or platform using commonly available materials, including cellulose paper and wax. Hydrophilic wells surrounded by hydrophobic boundaries are created by wax impregnation through the paper on heat treatment. We further demonstrate the application of these devices in the detection of iron contamination in water using colourimetric chemical reactions. Our results show that these devices can be used for obtaining qualitative as well as quantitative outcomes. We make use of image analysis tools to quantify the concentration of iron in the samples. The platform offers an affordable, accessible and versatile option for sensing applications in resource-limited settings.
Keywords: Environmental sensing, lab-on-a-chip, microfluidics, colourimetry, iron
Nano/micro fluids have garnered the attention of material science and heat transfer fraternity across the world for the reported enhancement of their thermal properties and the amenability for a change of their rheological properties under external influence. Of the various nano/micro fluids that have been researched widely, micro-silica fluids comprise a predominant fraction. The alterations in the morphological characteristics of the micro-silica fluids brought about by mechanical treatment of the samples influence their chemical and rheological behaviours.
The present work involves the study of milling parameters on the rheological behaviours of silica particles. The micron size silica is reduced to nano size by ball milling, done by 0-20 hours at 300 rpm in Fritsch P5 planetary ball mill. This milled powder will be characterized by XRD and SEM for it crystallite size and morphology. Thus prepared silica will be treated with ethylene glycol (EG) to enhance its dispersion in fluids.
Keywords: Silica nano/micron particle, rheological properties, ball milling, scanning electron microscopy
With millions of tyres accumulated on waste grounds, discarded tires in the past did not provide to be a waste disposal problem. Therefore it is necessary that alternative methods of disposal have to be developed to dispose these tyres in a safe manner which proves to be environmentally and economically effective. Some of the new techniques that have arisen in recent years to dispose the waste tyres are turning them into chips, grinding them and powdering them into crumb which is used in various constructions. In this study, various geotechnical tests were conducted on soil for identification and classification purpose. Further sieve analysis and specific gravity tests were conducted on crumb rubber (60 to 80 mesh) as per codal provisions. To understand the influence of rubber on compaction characteristics proctor compaction tests were conducted on soil and soil with various percentages of FCR (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%). It was observed that the OMC and MDD of the soil decreased with an increase in the rubber content and the UCS values increased with an optimum of 10% crumb rubber and anymore increase in the FCR per cent led to decrease in the UCS. Similarly it was observed that there is improvement in the CBR value with addition in the rubber content up to 10%. The study indicates that crumb rubber when in optimum amount can be utilized for soil stabilization as an effective means of waste management and it also decreases the landfill space needed for discarding the scrap tyres.
Keywords: Scrap tyres, UCC, CBR, fine crumb rubber, waste management
Construction and design practice of structures on high compressible and plasticity expansive clayey soil needs a treatment process to improve its overall performances during the phases of construction. Several methods are available to improve the properties of such soils to advance and meet the stability and serviceability requirements. Soil stabilization with different additives proved the improvement in the engineering properties of soils due to the solidification and recommend its effects to preferable for the construction applications. The use of naturally available additives for soil stabilization, indicates more environmental friendly by reducing its disposal. In this investigation a series of laboratory tests conducted to evaluate the influences of wood ash (WA) on the index properties, swelling characteristics of stabilized soils. This study were conducted by adding wood ash with two expansive soils in varying percentages of 3, 5 7, 9 and 11% and its compaction characteristics are also examined. The findings of this experimental investigation indicate that wood ash with the expansive soil decreased the index properties and the swelling characteristics with increase in additives contents, whereas the maximum dry density (MDD) of stabilized expansive soils increased with increasing additive proportions. The swelling characteristics were showed a reduction of around 50% compared to the untreated soils by the addition of 11% of wood ash. It was observed that the effect of wood ash of 7% with the soils, there is a reduction of volume changing behaviour of expansive clay and makes a cost-effective and sustainable environmental resource in construction activities.
Keywords: Wood ash, free swell index, stabilizer, maximum dry density
There is an increasing demand for refurbishment all around the world, since a building cannot have an infinite life span and needs to be maintained, repaired and renovated for a regular time period. Due to the advancement in the construction and technology the need for refurbishment of buildings all around the world which lacks modern advancements is on a greater demand. Since institutional buildings have a very longer lifespan it has to be refurbished for regular period of time. In this project we deal with the present condition of the institutional buildings located at Chennai and the refurbishment methods which is suitable is suggested in order to satisfy the occupants through questionnaire survey. The main objective of the project is to gather data about the occupant’s satisfaction and comfort in institutional buildings in Chennai and to study about the facilities available and need for refurbishment. From the results obtained by the analytical study, it is concluded that there is a high need for refurbishments of the institutional building located at Chennai. The areas to be refurbished in institutional buildings as suggested by the occupants are mainly in green energy concepts, toilet facilities, canteen facilities, ventilation, lighting facilities and other factors. The refurbishment methods that can be implemented in buildings in order to enhance the occupants comfort and satisfaction are discussed in detail in this project.
Keywords: Refurbishment, comfort, institutional building, green energy concepts
Domination is the a standout among the most feeding division of Graph theory. The most recent 50 years saw heavenly improvement of domination because of its expansive applications. The investigation of medium domination and medium dominating sets play a decisive estimation in diagram hypothesis. Duygu Vargor and Pinar Dundar1 presented the idea of medium domination number, in actuality, application to monitor the pair of vertices. This paper is to study the results on ‘Medium Domination Number of Line Graph of Cartesian Product of Two Paths Pm and Pn’.
AMS Subject Classification: 05C76.
Keywords: Domination number, Cartesian product, line graph, TDV, medium domination number
The ability of Heusler alloys to show half metallicity at room temperature has made them a widely researched topic in the field of Spintronics. I present here the synthesis of nanowires of an alloy of iron, manganese, and tin by electrospinning technique. The morphology of the nanowires was identified by field emission scanning electron microscopy and crystalline size by X-ray diffraction analysis and elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The morphologies tend to vary with changes in parameters like electrospinning voltage and annealing temperature. The material also shows good resistive properties.
Keywords: Heusler alloys, Spintronics, nanowires, electrospinning, scanning electron microscopy
Nuclear energy has played a major role in reducing the world’s use of oil for electricity generation over the past decades. Current estimates are that uranium resources will last some 400 to 500 years at the present rate of use. This resource base could furthermore, last some 50 times longer if breeder reactors are introduced. Of the main energy sources, namely coal, hydro and nuclear, nuclear can be even considered as a renewable source. A 1000 MW(e) coal plant, annually disperses some 44,000t of sulphur oxides, 22,000t of nitrous oxides into the atmosphere, besides significant quantities of solid waste in the form of fly ash. A 1000 MW(e) nuclear-power plant does not release noxious gases or other pollutants. The direct emissions of CO2 from nuclearpower generation are very low. However, it releases some CO2 if indirect processes are considered. Life cycle carbon dioxide emissions are very low for nuclear plants, ~ 2.7% of that of coal-fired power generation. The amount of waste generated by nuclear power plants is very small compared to the waste generated by electricity generation systems. Managing nuclear-power waste has distinct advantages as the quantities are remarkably small. All energy sources represent some risks: these are highly dependent on the different countries’ culture and economics. These risks must be assessed and minimized, and should be part of an integrated view on the risks in the society. This paper is a review of the impact of energy sources on the environment and making a case for nuclear energy.
Keywords: Pollution, coal, hydro, biomass, nuclear, risk