Sensing of acetone vapours using PVDF composite

Jan 2018 / by Sundaramurthy Devikala, Palanisamy Kamaraj and Maruthapillai Arthanareeswari

In an area, the presence of gases can be detected using a device called gas sensor. It is used to find out emission of gases. As many gases are harmful to plants, animals and human beings these gas sensing devices are essential. Several gas sensing detectors have been developed to detect hydrocarbons, VOC’s, NH3, ethanol etc., In the current study, a composite using PVDF and TiO2 was prepared and tested for acetone sensing.
Keywords: PVDF, TiO2, X ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

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Experimental study on behaviour of concrete by partially replacing aggregate with steel slag and mill scale slag

Jan 2018 / by D. Jaishree and R. Abinaya Keerthana

The objective of this study is to improve the behaviour of concrete by partial replacement of coarse and fine aggregates by adding steel slag and milk slag by using the mechanical property of M30 grade of concrete. The main aim of this work is to improve the strength of concrete by adding the admixtures with various concrete properties. Experiments were conducted to determine the compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of concrete with various percentages of steel slag and mill scale slag mix. From the experimental investigations, it has been observed that 30% partially replacement of coarse aggregate with steel slag and mill scale slag to be good in compression and tension compared to conventional concrete. The flexural strength has slightly decreased for the partially replacement of steel slag and mill scale slag by adding as coarse aggregate and the mechanical properties of 30% partially replacement of coarse aggregate with steel slag concrete provides a good performance when compared to mill scale slag concrete.
Keywords: Cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, steel slag and mill scale slag

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Effect of magnesium on silicon carbide and fly ash reinforced Al-MMC

Jan 2018 / by Mahesh Suryakant Jadhav and T. Rajasekaran

Magnesium alloy based metal matrix composite are incredible candidates for engineering light structure materials, and have great potential in automotive, high-performance aviation and defense applications. Magnesium (Mg) alloy is an imperative part in enhancing interfacial bond quality between strengthening particles and aluminum (Al) system in aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMC). Solid interfacial bond influences mechanical and wear properties of Al-MMC. The motivation behind this work is to research the impact of Mg on mechanical properties of silicon carbide (SiC), fly ash reinforced Al-MMC. Al MMC reinforced along with different wt.% of fly ash was prepared by utilizing stir casting procedure. Microstructure and wear attributes of prepared composites were evaluated. Composites containing 10% SiC particles by volume division with constant Mg and varying fly ash content were prepared by utilizing semi-solid stirring techniques.
Keywords: Aluminium alloy; stir casting; fly ash; SiC; MMC

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Relaxation studies of aqueous dodecyl pyridinium chloride with amides as cosolvents

Jan 2018 / by Kalaivani T. and S. Krishnan

The study of micellization of surfactant molecules under different experimental conditions continues to be of great interest, primarily on account of their wide range of industrial applications (Dunaway, et al. 1995; Fransks, 1975). However, one of the most interesting, though attempted less thoroughly aspects of micellization of surfactant molecules is the effect of organic solvents on critical micellization concentration (CMC) in the aqueous rich region (Larsen, et al. 1974; Lonescu et al. 1979).

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Synthesis and characterization of magnetic nano particles for biological applications

Jan 2018 / by Vignesh K., Madhubala V., Kalaivani T. and Rathi Suganya

In the present investigation, synthesis and characterization of iron oxide and their applications on bacteria were investigated. Fe3O4 NP was prepared by green synthesis process from the extract of Panicum miliare (millet). The detail characterization of the nano particles was carried out using UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) analysis. From SEM image analysis, the average particle size was found to be 53.4 nm for pure and with extract 51.5nm and 55.4 nm, for Fe3O4 nano particles, respectively. From the analysis of XRD pattern and UV-Vis spectroscopy, the formation of nano particles was confirmed. Antibacterial assay of synthesized oxide nano particles NP was carried out.
Keywords: Green synthesis, herbal extract, millet, nano particles

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Pseudomonas putida: A bioremediation tool for aquaculture

Jan 2018 / by Heerthana V.R. and Preetha R.

In the present study, a promising bioremediation tool was used to control ammonia (toxic) with one step biodegradation process using pseudomonas putida in order to improve quality and safety of the fish and shellfish. Aquaculture exposed to ammonia is susceptible to bacterial infection at farm level and in turn, affects quality and safety of seafood. The biodegradation models include inorganic media of various ammonia salts concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 10 g/L inoculated with the fresh culture of P. putida. The depuration kinetics results show that inorganic media incorporated with 5g/L of ammonia salts at optimum pH (7) shows 99.2% (6000ppm) removal of ammonia. The biomass estimated after bioremediation studies were 0.3g/L. The bioremediation studies were conducted on P. putida in inorganic media that mimics the condition of aquaculture ponds. Survivability of P. putida even at toxic environment widens the scope of bioremediation. Hence products attain quality in farm level and safety at fork level with least energy and cost. Therefore ensures empowerment in the blue revolution.
Keywords: Bioremediation, biodegradation, biostimulation, bioaugumentation, depuration

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Conversion of non-biodegradable waste to fuel oil by pyrolysis

Jan 2018 / by Kaushal Kothari, B. Neeraj, C.K. Kavya Sravanthi, V. Ganesh and Ashish Kapoor

The present rate of economic growth is unsustainable without saving of fossil fuels like crude oil, natural gas or coal because of our complete dependence on them. But looking at the adverse effects they have on the environment, mankind should switch over to the alternate and renewable energy sources. Moreover, suitable waste management strategy is another method to achieve sustainable development.Utilisation of waste to obtain usable energy from it and dispose it in a non-hazardous manner not only provides a way out for waste management but also ensures usable form of recovered energy. Plastics have rapidly emerged as economical and versatile materials in a vast range of products and applications. However, their wide usage brings an accompanying problem to deal with the waste that gets released in the environment. There is a considerable demand for alternatives to conventional methods of waste disposal, such as land filling, as means of municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The alternative approaches reported in this context include source reduction, reuse, recycle, and recovery of the valuable intrinsic energy value using incineration and other techniques. But these methods also have their drawbacks, some being slow in implementation, some difficult and others still being polluting. In this work, we investigate viability of production of liquid fuel from plastic waste by medium of pyrolysis in an in-house built reactor. It poses as a better alternative as the calorific value of the liquid fuel obtained from the experiments is comparable to that of standard fuels. The fuel oil produced from waste plastics is characterised for its properties. It is found that the obtained oil has properties similar to that of standard grade fuels, with similar constituent compounds as in the conventional fuels.
Keywords: Waste plastic oil, fuel, plastic, pyrolysis, solid waste

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Effect of water absorption on tensile properties of sugarcane fiber reinforced polyester composites filled with coconut shell filler

Jan 2018 / by Gokul K. and Rajasekaran T.

The aim of this work is to provide some economic value to the agricultural residues by using them as reinforcements in polymer composites. Sugarcane bagasse and coconut shell powder are termed as reinforcements along with unsaturated polyester matrix. Sugarcane fibers are surface treated with sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid for better surface adhesion. Effect of water absorption of untreated and surface treated sugarcane fiber polyester composites filled with coconut shell filler were evaluated on tensile specimens. It was observed that untreated sugarcane fiber composites absorb less percentage of water when compared to NaOH treated and HCl treated sugarcane fiber composites. Tensile properties of sugarcane fiber composites are decreased with increase in water absorption. Morphological study through scanning electron microscope reveals that interfacial bonding between fiber and matrix was found excellent NaOH treated sugarcane fiber compared to untreated and HCl treated sugarcane fiber.
Keywords: Polymer composites; sugarcane fiber; coconut shell; polyester matrix; water absorption; surface treatment; tensile property; morphology

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An Epidemiological Survey: Effect of predisposing factors for PCOS in Indian urban and rural population

Jan 2018 / by Vidya B.R., Neerajaa, Swetha S., Varsha M.J., Janani D.M., Rekha N. and Usha B.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common multifaceted disorder found among females of the reproductive age presenting major clinical conditions of hirsutism, oligomenorrhea and infertility. Socio-economic studies from India have observed PCOS as a lifestyle disease highly prevalent among middle and high income urban population as compared to rural population. However, such qualitative research has included patients who visit the investigators’ hospitals and segregated PCOS affected patients into different demographic groups. A large ethnographic study that identifies the prevalence of PCOS among different socio-economic groups especially between the rural and urban population, would be greatly helpful and reiterate women about lifestyle modifications to reduce the ratio of PCOS across the world. Thus, a large scale cross-sectional study was carried out during May 2015-February 2016 to exemplify the demographic status, awareness and prevalence of PCOS among young adults (between 18 to 24 years) in rural and urban settings. A total of 502 girls from Chennai city were surveyed to represent the urban population and a total of 566 girls collectively from a taluk in Minjur district and a village from Dindugal districts, Tamil Nadu, were surveyed to represent the rural population. From our survey, we have identified a prevalence rate of 6% in south India, according to the Rotterdam criteria. We have observed that the odds of urban women prone to getting PCOS are 0.1 times higher than women in rural India. Family history was found to have a strong association in incidence and manifestation of the disorder. Stress was found to set off the symptoms pertaining to PCOS. We also noticed that the awareness, among the rural population especially, was very minimum and thus they were not sentient for diagnosis.
Keywords: PCOS, young adults, urban and rural population, prevalence, family history, awareness

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Use of metakaolin as sustainable material on strength characteristics of problematic soil

Jan 2018 / by V. Janani, P.T. Ravichandran and Thota Balaraju

Due to scarcity of land the utilization of problematic soil for the requirement of engineering purpose can be done by ground improvement techniques. In this soil stabilization is one of the necessary techniques to improve the strength by altering the chemical composition leads to enhancing the engineering properties of the soil. It can be done by adding admixtures to improve the characteristics of soil and attain the stability by reducing the voids or reinforcing the soil structure. Metakaolin is an industrial primary product, when it is added to soil that can improve the soil strength properties and also reduce the environmental pollution. Specifically, this study focuses on an investigation of the effects of the varying curing period on the compaction and strength performance of two clayey soil samples stabilized with different proportions of metakaolin. In the first stage, virgin soil is tested for compaction characteristics and strength properties were investigated for strength performance. In the second stage, laboratory tests were conducted with additives for various percentages (2, 4, 6 and 8%) of metakaolin on clayey soils shows the alteration in properties of the soil such as compaction characteristics and strength characteristics of soil. The UCC and CBR of soil were increased up to 230% and 80% compared to those of the natural untreated soil at 8% metakaolin. The strength development was found to be proportional to the curing period, maximum is at 28 days. The stabilization methods adopted in the field has an additional benefit of providing way to dispose the industrial waste in an effective and an environment friendly manner.

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