Medicinal plant have bioactive compounds which are used as remedies for various human diseases and also play an important role in healing. The present study was designed to identify the phytoconstituents present in the Erythrina variegata L. leaves through HPTLC analysis. The HPTLC fingerprinting analysis were carried out by CAMAG LINOMAT 5 instrument and also by CAMAG REPROSTAR 3 camper. The HPTLC results confirmed the presence of 6 alkaloids, 5 glycosides, 4 flavonoids, 4 steroids and 4 saponins in the ethanolic extract of E variegata L. leaves. So, it was concluded that the ethanolic extract of E variegata L. leaves have more number of phytoconstituents, which may be used as therapeutic agent for pharmaceutical purpose.
HPTLC, medicinal plant, phytoconstituents, Erythrina variegata L.
The single crystal of 2-aminopyridinium terephthalate (2APT) were grown by using slow evaporation technique. The crystals were exposed to XRD analysis. FTIR was carried out to identify the various functional groups existing in the crystal. The optical properties were carried out using ultra violet-visible spectroscopy. Photoluminescence was used to find the luminescence property of the title compound. The thermal study of the crystal was studied by TG and DTA analysis. The SEM and EDAX studies were also carried out.
Keywords: Evaporation method, XRD, FTIR, optical properties
The single crystal of ethanolaminium 3,5-dinitrobenzoate (EDNB) were grown by using solution growth technique. The crystals were exposed to XRD analysis. FTIR spectroscopy was carried out to classify the various functional groups existing in the molecule. The optical properties were carried out using ultra violet-visible spectroscopy. Photoluminescence was used to find the luminescence property of the title compound. The thermal property of the crystal was studied by TG and DTA analysis. The SEM and EDAX spectrum of the grown crystal were also studied.
Keywords: Slow evaporation,, XRD, FTIR, optical material
Plectranthus hadiensis is one of the Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant used for treatment of stomach disorders, anxiety disorder and diarrhea. The essential oil constitutions of plectranthus hadiensis was identified using GC-MS analysis, were already reported. Molecular docking studies were carried out using the identified essential oil constituents against the anxiety proteins 4COF, 3RIF and 2VT4). From the obtained results, the compounds delta- Cadinene, beta-Guainene and NNaphthalene, 1, 2, 3, 4, 4a, 7- hexahydro-1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl) were found to be more effective against 2VT4 protein.
Keywords: Plectranthus hadiensis, essential oil, ligands, constituents
The intention of this research work is different annealing temperature influence in the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of titanium dioxide (TiO2) dye sensitized solar Cells (DSSC). Comparative study of temperature variations will cause a low and high performance of the annealed TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 nanoparticles are sensitized using the high efficiency banana flower dye (inflorescence dye) and pomogranet dye. The structural and morphological studies of TiO2 particles be deliberate via XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. The annealing handling customizes the nanoparticles of the TiO2 viewed through SEM images. Thermal properties of the dyed TiO2 are analysed by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The electron transport activity is investigated by PEC-S20 equipment to analyze and measure the photovoltaic activity of the dye-sensitized solar cells. The 450°C inflorescence dye (banana flower) DSSC exhibited a better photovoltaic performance than the annealed pomogranet dyed DSSC, and it can afford a better transmission speed, small recombination effect and extreme electron life span.
Keywords: Photovoltaic, dye sensitized solar cell, TiO2 nanoparticle, annealing, inflorescence dye
In this research work, Co doped AZO thin films have been deposit on glass substrate through sol-gel spin coating procedure and the precursors are zinc acetate dehydrate, Aluminum nitrate nonahydrate and cobalt acetate dehydrate respectively. Various concentration of cobalt co-doped AZO thin films were annealed at 550ÚC for 2 hrs. XRD results show the crystalline structure of pure and doped CAZO thin films are hexagonal wurtzite structures. Nanoparticles ranging from 35-50 nm are found from the SEM results. The optical transmittance and absorbance of all ZnO thin films decrease with the increase of cobalt concentrations.
Keywords: ZnO thin films, concentrations, co-doped, spin coating, nanoparticles
Super heaters are broadly used in steam generators and heat-recovery steam generators (HRSGs). The main function of super heater is to raise the steam temperature from saturation circumstances to the desired final temperature. The steam moving through the super heater tubes is normally heated at a very high temperature in order to ensure that all saturated steam is changed into superheated steam. Moreover, the elevated temperature will create the formation of oxide scales on the inner layer of the tube. This oxide scale decreases the heat transfer from the hot flue gas into the steam inside the tube. This thermal barrier will create failure of tubes. Finite element modeling is applied for finding the overheating of the tubes with oxide scale.CFD modelling is used for Performance studies. Henceforth it becomes essential to study on superheaters and de-super heaters. This paper gives an overview on superheaters and desuperheaters along with its advantages and disadvantages.
Keywords: super rheater, desuper heater, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
The prediction of the droplet size in OP spray desuperheateris one of the primary challenge problems in hydrodynamics applications. In this paper, the validation through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is achieved when the desired desuperheater temperature is 165°C. This work is motivated by the desire to predict the droplet size in sprays agreeing to the nozzle operating conditions. The proposed model is based on the U-Momentum, V-Momentum and W-Momentum equations. The first step of the model consists of solving mass continuity and updatingvelocity. Following, energy equation to predict the droplet size from the instability analysis is developed. Species reaction and evaporation are solved in the next step. Turbulence equations are solved and later discrete phase langrangian track are solved and updated to predict the temperature and droplet distributions.An iterative technique is adopted to search for the optimal solution parameter. The present structure is validated by comparing the theoretical results with the experimental measurements for a set of selected nozzles at different operating conditions. Phase Doppler Particle analyzer (PDPA) is used for measuring both the size of droplets and water sprays with measuring point located near enough to the nozzle tip in order to capture the initially formed droplets jut after atomization. These droplets measurements are used in different OP nozzles sizes and the effect of nozzles are measured. The performed comparison of indicated a good agreement between the predicted size of spray droplets and equivalent experimental measurements.
Keywords: Droplet size, desuperheater, spray, computational fluid dynamics